Indonesian Leading Commodities Charcoal

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Indonesian Leading Commodities Charcoal

May 31, 2022

Charcoal is one of Indonesia’s leading agricultural export commodities on the international market. Charcoal is the blackish material consisting mainly of carbon obtained by removing water and other volatile constituents from plant matter (such as wood) or animal matter (such as bone). Charcoal is usually produced by slow pyrolysis, the heating of wood, sugar, bone char, or other materials in the absence of oxygen. The resultant material is 85 to 98 percent carbon, with the remainder consisting of volatile chemicals and ash. It is soft, brittle, lightweight, black, and porous, and it resembles coal.

Historically, wood charcoal was used as a constituent of gunpowder and as a reducing agent in the extraction of metals. In parts of the world where petroleum was scarce, automobiles and buses were converted to burn wood gas, obtained by burning charcoal or wood in a wood gas generator. Currently, charcoal is used for cooking (such as outdoor grilling) and some industrial processes. Activated charcoal, which is very porous and a good adsorbent, is used to filter water, adsorb odors, and remove undesirable colors. In medicine, activated charcoal is used to adsorb intestinal gases and to remove certain toxins. In addition, charcoal is used in art for drawing and making sketches.

One of the most important historical applications of wood charcoal was as a constituent of gunpowder. It was also used in metallurgical operations as a reducing agent, but its application has been diminished by the introduction of fuels such as coke or anthracite smalls. For example, charcoal may be used to smelt a variety of metals from aluminum to copper, as it burns at the necessary temperature: 1,100 °C (2,010 °F). A limited quantity is made into the form of drawing crayons; but the greatest amount is used as a fuel, which burns hotter and cleaner than wood. Charcoal is often used by blacksmiths, for cooking, and various industrial applications.

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